Skip to Content


The Π Majority Text group is the third largest family of manuscripts found within all majority text New Testament manuscripts. It is named after the uncial Π (041) and found at the Russian National Library in St. Petersburg. This manuscript grouping was first recognized in the West be Prof. Wilhelm Boussett in a study he made of the group in 1894.
Other New Testament textual scholars including Tischendorf, Von Soden, and Scrivener had previously recognized the relationship among manuscripts that would later be recognized as a separate grouping. Von Soden classified these related manuscripts he had recognized in his collations into several subgroups such as Ka(a), Ka(b) and the small cluster he called Ka(c). The Ka(a) to Ka(c) range distinguished by the degree the manuscript had either more or less in textual profile unity with his Kx group. This group can also be easily identified by its own m5 variety of the pericope adulterae section.

Notable manuscripts included in this large manuscript grouping include the well known Codex A (02) Alexandrinus as well as K (017) Cyprianus also Beratinus II, the purple IX century minuscule found in Tirana, Albania. Many other tenth century manuscripts are included in this ancient grouping. The main family Π grouping is the Ka(a) group which was the most distinct from all other majority text manuscripts. It falls in the borderline of Colwell’s 70% textual similarity to the text found in the various Textus Receptus editions and Kx or Kr/family 35 manuscript groupings. The later manuscripts from the Ka(b) subgroup and (c) cluster are mostly of a later date than the main family Π group. The links below provides a listing of the known members of family Ka/Π and it's variety of the PA section.

Ka/Π manuscripts

PA m5 Ka version

Gospel of Mark for Ka/Π